VICTORIAN OUTPOST GRIMSBYS NUMBER ONE  GAMING VENUE

  THE  COLONIAL AGE OF EUROPEAN EXPANSION

UPDATE 04-DECEMBER - BOXER ATTACK ON ALLIED SUPPIES PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 2ND NOV - BOXER ATTACK ON ALLIED SUPPIES - GALLERY
UPDATE 21-OCTOBER - WW II BATTLE PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 10TH OCTOBER - WWII CITY BATTLE - GALLERY
UPDATE 27 SEPTEMBER - ATTACK ON CRUSADER SUPPLIES 2
UPDATE 16 SEPTEMBER  - ATTACK ON THE CRUSADER SUPPLIES - GALLERY
UPDATE 08 SEPTEMBER - BUILDING CREATED FOR HAMMERHEAD SHOW 2088 - WORKBENCH TAB
UPDATE 07-09-17 - 28MM BUILDING CREATED FOR THE UPCOMING GAME AT HAMMERHEAD SHOW - WORKBENCH TAB
UPDATE 02 SEPTEMBER - THE OTHER PARTIZAN PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 26TH AUGUST- THE OTHER PARTIZAN - GALLERY
UPDATE 30-07-17-TYW 1618-48 PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 19TH JULY - TYW 1618-48 - GALLERY


The Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) began when Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia attempted to curtail the religious activities of his subjects, sparking rebellion among Protestants. The war came to involve the major powers of Europe, with Sweden, France, Spain and Austria all waging campaigns primarily on German soil. Known in part for the atrocities committed by mercenary soldiers, the war ended with a series of treaties that made up the Peace of Westphalia. The fallout reshaped the religious and political map of central Europe, setting the stage for the old centralized Roman Catholic empire to give way to a community of sovereign states.

This conflict, which redrew the religious and political map of central Europe, began in the Holy Roman Empire, a vast complex of some one thousand separate, semiautonomous political units under the loose suzerainty of the Austrian Hapsburgs. Over the previous two centuries, a balance of power had emerged among the leading states, but during the sixteenth century, the Reformation and the Counter Reformation had divided Germany into hostile Protestant and Catholic camps, each prepared to seek foreign support to guarantee its integrity if need arose.

Thus in 1618, when Ferdinand II, heir apparent to the throne of Bohemia, began to curtail certain religious privileges enjoyed by his subjects there, they immediately appealed for aid to the Protestants in the rest of the empire and to the leading foreign Protestant states: Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Denmark. Ferdinand, in turn, called upon the German Catholics (led by Bavaria), Spain, and the papacy. In the ensuing struggle, Ferdinand (elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1619) and his allies won a major victory at White Mountain (1620) outside Prague that allowed the extirpation of Protestantism in most of the Hapsburg lands. Encouraged by this success, Ferdinand turned in 1621 against Bohemia’s Protestant supporters in Germany. Despite aid from Britain, Denmark, and the Dutch Republic, they too lost, and by 1629 imperial armies commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein overran most of Protestant Germany and much of Denmark. Ferdinand then issued the Edict of Restitution, reclaiming lands in the empire belonging to the Catholic Church that had been acquired and secularized by Protestant rulers.

Only Swedish military aid saved the Protestant cause. In 1630 an army led by King Gustavus Adolphus landed in Germany and, with a subsidy from the French government and assistance from many German Protestant states, routed the Imperialists at Breitenfeld (1631) and drove them from much of Germany. The Protestant revival continued until in 1634 a Spanish army intervened and at Nordlingen defeated the main Swedish field army and forced the Protestants out of southern Germany. This new Hapsburg success, however, provoked France-which feared encirclement-to declare war first on Spain (1635) and then on the emperor (1636).

The war, which in the 1620s had been fought principally by German states with foreign assistance, now became a struggle among the great powers (Sweden, France, Spain, and Austria) fought largely on German soil, and for twelve more years armies maneuvered while garrisons-over five hundred in all-carried out a “dirty war” designed both to support themselves and to destroy anything of possible use to the enemy. Atrocities (such as those recorded in the novel Simplicissimus by Hans von Grimmelshausen) abounded as troops struggled to locate and appropriate resources. Eventually, France’s victory over the Spaniards at Rocroi (1643) and Sweden’s defeat of the Imperialists at Jankau (1645) forced the Hapsburgs to make concessions that led, in 1648, to the Peace of Westphalia, which settled most of the outstanding issues.

The cost, however, had proved enormous. Perhaps 20 percent of Germany’s total population perished during the war, with losses of up to 50 percent along a corridor running from Pomerania in the Baltic to the Black Forest. Villages suffered worse than towns, but many towns and cities also saw their populations, manufacture, and trade decline substantially. It constituted the worst catastrophe to afflict Germany until World War II. On the other hand, the conflict helped to end the age of religious wars. Although religious issues retained political importance after 1648 (for instance, in creating an alliance in the 1680s against Louis XIV), they no longer dominated international alignments. Those German princes, mostly Calvinists, who fought against Ferdinand II in the 1620s were strongly influenced by confessional considerations, and as long as they dominated the anti-Hapsburg cause, so too did the issue of religion. But because they failed to secure a lasting settlement, the task of defending the “Protestant cause” gradually fell into the hands of Lutherans, who proved willing to ally (if necessary) with Catholic France and Orthodox Russia in order to create a coalition capable of defeating the Hapsburgs. After 1630 the role of religion in European politics receded. This was, perhaps, the greatest achievement of the Thirty Years’ War, for it thus eliminated a major destabilizing influence in European politics, which had both undermined the internal cohesion of many states and overturned the diplomatic balance of power created during the Renaissance.

THE RUSSIAN WINTER ARRIVES PT 2
UPDATE 1ST JULY - THE RUSSIAN WINTER ARRIVES WWII

The Russian Winter Arrives WWII


In addition to the might of the Red Army, German troops were also worn down by “General Winter”—the nickname used to describe the deadly Russian frost. Adolf Hitler’s invasion plans called for the Germans to conquer the Soviet Union before the legendary cold could set in, but supply issues and an unexpectedly spirited resistance combined to stall the advance at Moscow’s doorstep in late-1941. Still clad in their summer uniforms, the German Wehrmacht had to resort to using newspaper and straw to insulate themselves against subzero temperatures. They soon faced frostbite in epidemic proportions. Some 100,000 cases were reported by end of 1941, resulting in the amputation of nearly 15,000 limbs.

The cold also wreaked havoc on Nazi heavy machinery. Tanks and jeeps refused to start, and guns and artillery often froze and failed to fire. The Soviets were more accustomed to the chill, and used specially designed rifles, skis and camouflage to continue fighting even in some of the most inhospitable conditions. The annual deep freeze proved to be a thorn in the side of the German armies for the rest of the war, but the warmer months were only nominally better. Russian summers were often boiling hot, and spring and fall brought a miserable rainy season known as the “rasputitsa,” which left roads waterlogged and often impassable.
20TH JUNE - TAKU FORT NAVAL ACTION PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 12TH JUNE - TAKU FORT NAVAL ACTION - GALLERY

Taku Fort Naval Action

In mid-June 1900, allied forces in northern China were vastly outnumbered. In Beijing there were 450 soldiers and marines from eight countries protecting the diplomatic legations. Somewhere between Tianjin and Beijing were the 2,000 men in the Seymour Expedition which was attempting to get to Beijing to reinforce the legation guards. In Tianjin were 2,400 Allied soldiers, mostly Russians. All of these forces were menaced by thousands of Boxers, members of an indigenous peasant movement that aimed to end foreign influence in China. The Qing government of China was wavering between supporting the Boxers in their anti-foreign crusade or suppressing them because they represented a threat to the dynasty.

A few miles offshore in the Yellow Sea were a large number of Western and Japanese warships. On June 15, Chinese forces deployed electric mines in the Peiho River before the battle to prevent the Eight-Nation Alliance from sending ships to attack. With their supply and communication lines to Tianjin threatened, the commanders of the ships met on June 16. Control of the Taku forts at the mouth of the Hai River was the key to maintaining a foothold in northern China. Vice-Admiral Hildebrandt, from the Imperial Russian Navy, through Lieutenant Bakhmetev, sent a message to the commander of the forts, who then sent a message by telegraph to the Governor of Zhili Province, stating that they proposed to "occupy provisionally, by consent or by force" the Taku Forts and demanded that Chinese forces surrender the forts before 2 am on June 17. Of the Allied countries represented, only the United States Navy’s Rear Admiral Louis Kempff demurred, stating that he had no authority to undertake hostilities against China. Kempff said that an attack was an "act of war", and therefore refused to participate. However, Kempff agreed that an ageing American gunboat, the Monocacy, could be stationed near the forts as a place of refuge for civilians in the vicinity.

It was an audacious demand by the foreign sailors. Only ten ships, including the non-combatant Monocacy, could cross over the banks at the river’s mouth to enter the Hai River – two hundred yards wide—from where the four forts could be occupied or assaulted. Only 900 men could be assembled to undertake the operation. By contrast the Chinese soldiers and sailors in the forts and on several modern gunboats docked along the river consisted of about 2,000 men. The Chinese also began laying mines near the mouth of the river and installing torpedo tubes in the forts. In the evening of June 16, the foreign warships began entering the river and taking up their stations from which the Taku Forts could be occupied or assaulted.
UPDATE 30TH MAY - MEDIEVAL CASTLE SIEGE PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 21 MAY -MEDIEVAL CASTLE SIEGE - GALLERY

 Most of the time, the attacking force would send a messenger to the lord of the castle and give notice of their intentions to attack. This notice allowed the castle to surrender. Sometimes the lord surrendered, but most often the castle was restocked and made ready for the siege. They would restock themselves with food, supplies and drink, and add men to the garrison.

There were three ways to take a castle. The first is not to attack the castle at all - just avoid the castle altogether and seize the lands around it. The second is direct assault, or laying siege to the castle. The last is besieging.

Here is an account of a siege. Stone throwing mangonels attack the towers and walls every day. The walls of the castles would hopefully be breached, and towers damaged. The enemy erects wooden towers called belfries, taller than the castle towers, to conceal and enable bow men to shoot arrows down into the castle. While this is going on, miners would be tunneling under the walls and towers of the castle in preparation to collapse them.

To counter the mining, anti-mining tunnels could be dug by the castle soldiers, which insured a ferocious hand-to-hand battle underground. Inside the castle, the guards would place a pot of water near the castle towers and walls. When the water rippled, they would know enemy miners were at work underneath them. Since some castles were defended with as few as 14 soldiers, you can imagine how busy they would be at this point!

The barbican is next assaulted and taken, with a loss of men on both sides. Then the bailey is attacked, and more men killed. Animals and some supplies would be captured. The auxiliary buildings containing hay and grain for the castle are burned. By now, miners have succeeded in collapsing a wall of the castle. The attackers have broken through and seized the inner bailey. More men on both sides would be lost in this phase of the attack.

By this time, the castle defenders would have retreated to the keep. Miners would now be setting fire to the mine tunnel under the keep. Smoke and fire are rising into the keep, and cracks appearing in the thick walls. The defenders of the castle are forced to surrender as the castle falls to the enemy.

The third method, called besieging, would require the enemy to wait and starve the castle garrison into surrender. This method was preferred by an attacking side. Some sieges of this type would last from six months to a year. Sometimes, the enemy would hurl dead animals into the castle grounds in hopes of spreading diseases. And, sometimes the lord of the castle would toss dead animals outside his castle, to convince the enemy they had enough supplies to carry on a siege for months.
UPDATE 14TH MAY - CAMPAIGN OF 1896 PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 6TH MAY - CAMPAIGN 1896 SUDAN - GALLERY

Campaign of 1896 Sudan

The Egyptian army moved swiftly to the border at Wadi Halfa and began moving south on 18 March to take Akasha, a village which was to be the base for the expedition. Akasha was deserted when they entered on 20 March and Kitchener devoted the next two months to building up his forces and supplies ready for the next advance.

Apart from occasional skirmishing, the first serious contact with Mahdist forces took place in early June at the village of Farka . The village was a Mahdist strongpoint some way upriver from Akasha; its commanders, Hammuda and Osman Azraq, led around 3,000 soldiers and had evidently decided to hold his ground rather than withdraw as the Egyptian army advanced. At dawn on 7 June, two Egyptian columns attacked the village from north and south, killing 800 Mahdist soldiers, with others plunging naked into the Nile to make their escape. This left the road to Dongola clear, but despite advice to move rapidly and take it, Kitchener adhered to his usual cautious and carefully prepared approach.

Kitchener took time to build up supplies at Kosheh, and brought his gunboats south through the Second Cataract of the Nile ready for an assault on Dongola.] The Egyptian river navy consisted of the gunboats Tamai, El Teb, Metemma and Abu Klea as well as the steamers Kaibar, Dal and Akasha. They had been used to patrol the river between Wadi Halfa and Aswan, and were now pressed into service as part of the invasion force. They had to wait however for the Nile to flood before they could navigate over the second cataract, and in 1896 the flood was unusually late, meaning that the first boat could not pass until 14 August. Each of the seven boats had to be physically hauled up over the cataract by two thousand men, at the rate of one boat per day. To this force were added the three new gunboats brought round the cataract by rail and assembled on the river at Kosheh.

Dongola was defended by a substantial Mahdist force under the command of Wad Bishara, consisting of 900 jihadiyya, 800 Baqqara Arabs, 2,800 spearmen, 450 camel and 650 horse cavalry. Kitchener was unable to advance on Dongola immediately after the battle of Farka because not long afterwards, cholera broke out in the Egyptian camp, and killed over 900 men in July and early August 1896. With the summer of 1896 marked by disease and severe weather, Kitchener's columns, supported by gunboats on the Nile, finally began to advance up the Nile towards Kerma, at the Third Cataract, where Wad Bishara had established a forward position. Instead of defending it however he moved his forces across the river so that as the Egyptian gunboats came upstream he was able to concentrate heavy fire on them. On 19 September the gunboats made several runs at the Mahdist positions, firing at their trenches, but the fire returned was too intense for them to maintain their position safely. Kitchener therefore ordered them to simply steam on, past the Mahdist position, towards Dongola. Seeing them proceed, Wad Bishara withdrew his forces to Dongola. On 20 September the gunboats exchanged fire with the town's defenders and on 23 Kitchener's main force reached the town.[29] Wad Bishara, seeing the overwhelming size of the Egyptian force, and unnerved by several days of bombardment by the gunboats, withdrew. The town was occupied, as were Merowe and Korti. Total Egyptian losses for the taking of Dongola were one killed and 25 wounded. Kitchener was promoted to Major-General.
UPDATE 27TH APRIL - STEAM RIVER BOAT - WORKBENCH
UPDATE 25TH APRIL - DEAD MANS HAND PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 15TH APRIL - CHINESE PIRATE SHIPS - WORKBENCH TAB
UPDATE 14 APRIL - DEAD MANS HAND SKIRMISH GAME - GALLERY Game of Dead Mans Hand skirmish cowboy rules, great set of rules to have, they are simple and quick, lots of those small details you want in a cowboy game that give it that bit of more fun, plenty of laughs and banter...game was for the Injuns to attack the town and just wipe out and burn as much as possible.
UPDATE 27TH MARCH - GALLERY - 2ND SIKH WARS PT 2
UPDATE 18-MARCH - GALLERY-2ND SIKH WAR,

 The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) took place between the British and the Sikh Empire. The war resulted into decisive victory of the British. The British took control over Punjab and later made it the North West Frontier Province.

Even after the completion of the First Anglo-Sikh War, the Sikhs were simmering with discontent. The humiliating terms of the treaty of Lahore was matter of great anguish for the Sikh people. The deliberate elimination of Rani Jindan from the Regency Council dissatisfied the Sikhs. A few days later, her forcible removal from Lahore added to their discontent. Moreover, the reforms of Sir Henry Lawrence the British Resident of Lahore also annoyed the Sikhs.

The Second Anglo-Sikh War became imminent. The English were even then confused against whom they were to fight. In fact, neither the Lahore Durbar, nor Dalip Singh did oppose the English. The hostility came from Mulraj and Sher Singh. The reason behind Mulraj’s revolt against the Lahore Durbar was that he was instructed to submit the accounts of Multan’s income and expenditure during the last ten years to the Lahore Durbar. But Mulraj refused to submit the accounts as he was appointed the Governor of Multan only four years back. Moreover, being pressed by the English, the Lahore Durbar increased the revenue demand of Multan from Rs. 12 lakhs to Rs. 18 lakhs. So Mulraj had every reason to be unhappy with the activities of the Lahore Durbar. At this stage, Sher Singh realised that the English planned to annex the entire Punjab, using the revolt of Mulraj as a pretext. So he appealed to the Sikh leaders to drive the English away from the Punjab as revenge against the humiliation suffered by Rani Jindan and to support Mulraj.
UPDATE 10TH MARCH - HAMMERHEAD SHOW TABLES 2017-GALLERY
WELL DONE TO ALL WHO PUT ON A GAME AT THIS YEARS SHOW, I DID'NT HAVE THE TIME TO TAKE SO MANY PICTURES OF ALL THE  GAMES NOR COULD I GET ACROSS TO THE OTHER BUILDING TO SEE THE GAMES ON DISPLAY...65 PHOTOS OF THE GAMES IN THE GALLERY TO SEE THE WORK AND EFFORT OTHERS HAVE PUT IN.
UPDATE 5 TH MARCH - HAMMERHEAD SHOW GAME PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 27TH FEB -HAMMERHEAD SHOW GAME -GALLERY
UPDATE 24TH FEB - TORPEDO BOATS -WORKBENCH
UPDATE 21ST FEB - SAMPAN BOATS CONSTRUCTED- WORKBENCH TAB.

Sampan, most common type of small boat in Chinese waters, constructed in a variety of designs. Some have sharp bows, and nearly all have large sterns, with the after portion of the gunwale and deck nearly always raised. Sampans are usually rigged for sailing, sometimes with two masts; otherwise they are rowed with large sweep-type oars. They are usually open or partly decked, with a shelter or cabin aft. In Japan, Hawaii, and Taiwan, a powered boat has been developed out of the traditional Japanese sampan, with a flat-bottomed midsection.

Thought i might just contruct 4 Sampans, created from a black foam board with coffee stirrers, bamboo skewers and basic wire for rope effect, all 28mm scale.
UPDATE 19TH FEB - THE HOLY WAR PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 12-FEB- THE HOLY WAR - GALLERY.


The Crusades were a series of military campaigns during the time of Medieval England against the Muslims of the Middle East. In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem – the most holy of holy places for Christians. Jesus had been born in nearby Bethlehem and Jesus had spent most of his life in Jerusalem. He was crucified on Calvary Hill, also in Jerusalem. There was no more important place on Earth than Jerusalem for a true Christian which is why Christians called Jerusalem the “City of God”.

However, Jerusalem was also extremely important for the Muslims as Muhammad, the founder of the Muslim faith, had been there and there was great joy in the Muslim world when Jerusalem was captured. A beautiful dome – called the Dome of the Rock – was built on the rock where Muhammad was said to have sat and prayed. The rock was so holy that no Muslim was allowed to tread on it or touch it when visiting the Dome.

Thus the Christians fought to get Jerusalem back while the Muslims fought to keep Jerusalem. These wars were to last nearly 200 years.
UPDATE 28TH JAN-THE FIRST ANGLO-BOER WAR 1880-81 PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 20 JAN - THE FIRST ANGLO-BOER WAR 1880-81 GALLERY  The First Anglo-boer war 1880-81

The first Anglo-Boer War was the only war lost by the British Empire during the 19 th Century. In each of the four battles of this First War of Independence for the Transvaal, the Boers decisively defeated the British Army: at Bronkhorstspruit 20 December 1880, Laing’s Nek 28 January 1881, Ingogo (Skuinshoofte), 8 February 1881 and Majuba 27 February 1881.

However, when the British began to tax the Boers, resistance developed. Paul Kruger, who as a young boy of 11 years old had taken part in the Battle of Vegkop against the Matebele, was the dynamic force behind the struggle for the independence of the Transvaal. Numerous protest meetings and diplomatic attempts by the Boers were ignored by the British. When an ex-president of the Transvaal, M.W. Pretorius, approached the British High Commissioner, Sir Garnet Wolseley, in Pretoria, he was immediately jailed.

The spark that began the first Anglo-Boer War was over taxation. A farmer, Pieter Bezuidenhout, was summoned to pay ₤14 tax. When he refused to pay, the magistrate ordered the seizure and sale of his wagon by public auction. On 11 November 1880 a party of 100 Boers stopped the auction and forcibly returned the wagon to its owner.


UPDATE 15TH JAN - ALLIES DRIVE FOR THE RHINE BRIDGE PT 2

The Allies Drive for the Rhine Bridge

Since December the U. S. First and Ninth Arimes had been building up strength behind the swollen little Roer River. On Feb. 23 they let it go with a stunning night barrage. The Germans at the river were quickly overpowered. Beyond the river the rigid framework of their Rhineland defense began to break down. A week after the first gun had been fired at the Roer, the Ninth had arrived at the Rhine opposite Dusseldorf. The men of the Ninth exchanged shots with the Germans on the other side.

Lieut. General William H. Simpson, commander of the Ninth, hd been waiting for this drive to the Rhine. If the river was to be crossed by his army, the smooth crossing of the Roer was a battle rehearsal. For weeks the muddy little stream had been an obsession with the men of the Ninth. They prepared and planned to cross it early in February, in coordination with drives by the Canadians and General Patton's Third Army. But on the eve of the crossing the Germans opened the gates in the big earth dams of the upper Roer, partly flooding the cabbage land of the lower valley. General Simpson was forced to postpone the crossing while his engineers calculated when it would be possible.

The engineers, watching the flood dimish, told the general the crossing could be made on Feb. 23. The Ninth began to get ready again. The men and tanks and portable sections of pontoon bridges moved up to the river. At 2:45 A.M. the barrage began and a smokescreen drifted over river to cover the crossing.

 

As the morning sun shines through the open roof of a house in Julich, Ninth Army infantrymen dash across Roer under German mortar and machine-gun fire.

The U. S. Breakthrough Begins with the Crossing of the Roer: The Ninth Army's crossing of the Roer was a short, violent struggle against the Germans and the river. Forty-five minutes after the night barrage had begun, assault boats and amphibious tractors started across in a great wave. In some of the boats were combat engineers, ferrying cables to moor their pontoon bridges in midstream. It was an excruiating few hours for the engineers. The flood had lessened but the current was still swift and strong. Runaway boats and pontoons careened downsteam crashing into the bridges as they were being built. As the work went on the Germans kept up a blind but deadly machine-gun and mortar barrage through the smokescreen. But in spite of diffculties there were two footbridges across the Roer in the morning. Later the engineers put in bigger bridges for trucks and tanks.

We began our game from this point, the bridge intact and the mortar and machine gun  with some support counter-attack.Game is a 12ft by 6ft table plenty of cover for both sides, Americans had to defend the bridge as best as possible and the Germans to take the bridge, game was 10 turns and whoever had control of the bridge and surrounding villages  won .... 28mm figures and as always more pictures on the website at http://www.victorian-steel.com/





UPDATE 9TH JAN - BOXER REBELLION FLAGS NOW AVAILABLE FROM  http://adrianswalls.co.uk/-WORKBENCH
UPDATE 6TH JAN - THE ALLIES DRIVE FOR THE RHINE BRIDGE
Since December the U. S. First and Ninth Arimes had been building up strength behind the swollen little Roer River. On Feb. 23 they let it go with a stunning night barrage. The Germans at the river were quickly overpowered. Beyond the river the rigid framework of their Rhineland defense began to break down. A week after the first gun had been fired at the Roer, the Ninth had arrived at the Rhine opposite Dusseldorf. The men of the Ninth exchanged shots with the Germans on the other side.

Lieut. General William H. Simpson, commander of the Ninth, hd been waiting for this drive to the Rhine. If the river was to be crossed by his army, the smooth crossing of the Roer was a battle rehearsal. For weeks the muddy little stream had been an obsession with the men of the Ninth. They prepared and planned to cross it early in February, in coordination with drives by the Canadians and General Patton's Third Army. But on the eve of the crossing the Germans opened the gates in the big earth dams of the upper Roer, partly flooding the cabbage land of the lower valley. General Simpson was forced to postpone the crossing while his engineers calculated when it would be possible.

The engineers, watching the flood dimish, told the general the crossing could be made on Feb. 23. The Ninth began to get ready again. The men and tanks and portable sections of pontoon bridges moved up to the river. At 2:45 A.M. the barrage began and a smokescreen drifted over river to cover the crossing.

 

As the morning sun shines through the open roof of a house in Julich, Ninth Army infantrymen dash across Roer under German mortar and machine-gun fire.

The U. S. Breakthrough Begins with the Crossing of the Roer: The Ninth Army's crossing of the Roer was a short, violent struggle against the Germans and the river. Forty-five minutes after the night barrage had begun, assault boats and amphibious tractors started across in a great wave. In some of the boats were combat engineers, ferrying cables to moor their pontoon bridges in midstream. It was an excruiating few hours for the engineers. The flood had lessened but the current was still swift and strong. Runaway boats and pontoons careened downsteam crashing into the bridges as they were being built. As the work went on the Germans kept up a blind but deadly machine-gun and mortar barrage through the smokescreen. But in spite of diffculties there were two footbridges across the Roer in the morning. Later the engineers put in bigger bridges for trucks and tanks.

We began our game from this point, the bridge intact and the mortar and machine gun  with some support counter-attack.Game is a 12ft by 6ft table plenty of cover for both sides, Americans had to defend the bridge as best as possible and the Germans to take the bridge, game was 10 turns and whoever had control of the bridge and surrounding villages  won .... 28mm figures and as always more pictures on the website at http://www.victorian-steel.com/






UPDATE 28TH DEC NAPOLEONIC MASS BATTLE PT 2
UPDATE 9TH DEC - 15MM NAPOLEONIC MASS BATTLE - GALLERY
UPDATE 26TH NOV ROMAN SASSANID WAR PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 18TH NOV - ROMAN SASSANID WAR 421 - 422

 The Roman–Sassanid war of 421–422 was a conflict between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanids. The casus belli was the persecution of Christians by the Sassanid king Bahram V, which had come as a response to attacks by Christians against Zoroastrian temples; the Christian Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II declared war and obtained some victories, but in the end the two powers agreed to sign a peace on the status quo ante.

The commander-in-chief of the Roman army was Ardaburius, who, incidentally, came from the Iranian tribe of the Alans. Ardaburius needed to collect many troops for his campaign. Theodosius, therefore, allowed some Pannonian Ostrogoths to settle in Thracia, to defend the province from the Huns while the Thracian Roman troops were sent to the East.

Ardaburius sent Anatolius to Persarmenia, where he joined the rebels, while Ardaburius entered in Persian territory and devastated Arzanene. The general of the Sassanid army, Narses, moved with his troops against Ardaburius, and engaged the Romans in battle, but was defeated and forced to retreat. Narses planned to attack Mesopotamia, a Roman province that had been left unguarded, and moved there, but Ardaburius foresaw his enemy's plan and reached Mesopotamia.

Ardaburius received reinforcements and put the fortress of Nisibis under siege. Bahram allied with the Lakhmid Arabs of Alamundarus (Al-Mundhir I of Hirah), who, however, were dispersed by the Romans. In the meantime, the King of the Huns, Rua, had attacked the dioceses of Dacia and Thracia and had even menaced Constantinople; at the same time, a large Persian army moved towards Nisibis. To avoid a war on two fronts, Theodosius then recalled Ardaburius back.

UPDATE 13TH NOV -RUSSO TURK WAR 1676-1681 PART 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 04-NOV-RUSSO TURK WAR 1676-1681 - GALLERY
The Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681, a war between the Tsardom of Russia and Ottoman Empire, caused by Turkish expansionism in the second half of the 17th century. After having captured and devastated the region of Podolia in the course of the Polish–Turkish War of 1672–1676, the Ottoman government strove to spread its rule over all of the Right-bank Ukraine with the support of its vassal (since 1669), Hetman Petro Doroshenko. The latter’s pro-Turkish policy caused discontent among many Ukrainian Cossacks, which would elect Ivan Samoilovich (Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine) as a sole Hetman of all Ukraine in 1674.

Doroshenko decided to fight back, and in 1676, his army of 12,000 men seized the city of Chyhyryn, counting on the approaching Turkish-Tatar army. However, the Russian and Ukrainian forces under the command of Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky besieged Chyhyryn and made Doroshenko surrender. Leaving a garrison in Chyhyryn, the Russian and Ukrainian armies retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper. The Turkish Sultan appointed Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine, who had been the Sultan’s prisoner at that time. In July 1677, the Sultan ordered his army (45,000 men) under the command of Ibrahim Pasha to advance towards Chyhyryn.

Ibrahim Pasha's army did not arrive at Chyhyryn until August 4, 1677. Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky's forces rendezvoused on August 10, and by August 24 only had to cross the Sula River to reach Chyhyryn. On August 26–27, a skirmish between Muscovite and Ukrainian and Ottoman troops removed Ottoman observation posts and allowed the rest of the Muscovite and Ukrainian forces to cross the river unmolested. Muscovite and Ukrainian cavalry attacked and overwhelmed Ibrahim Pasha's camp, on the August 28, inflicting heavy casualties. The following day, Ibrahim lifted the siege of Chyhyryn and retreated to the Igul' River. Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky relieved Chyhyryn on September 5. The Ottoman Army had lost 20,000 men and Ibrahim was imprisoned upon his return to Constantinople.

In July 1678, the Turkish army (approx. 80,000 men) of the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa besieged Chyhyryn once again. The Russian and Ukrainian armies (20,000 men) broke through the Turkish covering force, however, the Turks had already managed to occupy Chyhyryn on August 11. The Russian army retreated over the Dnieper, beating off the pursuing Turkish army, which would finally leave them in peace.

In 1679–1680, the Russians repelled the attacks of the Crimean Tatars and signed the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty on January 3, 1681, which would establish the Russo-Turkish border by the Dnieper.

UPDATE 29TH OCT - WHEN TWO TRIBES GO TO WAR PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 21ST OCT - WHEN TWO TRIBES GO TO WAR - GALLERY

When two tribes go to war, East africa

Germany was quite late in the empire building that characterized the 19th and early 20th centuries. In Africa, the Germans colonized what is now Cameroon, Tanzania, Uganda, and Namibia. In the Pacific, they colonized portions of what is now Papua New Guinea, Nauru and the Solomon Islands.

These efforts were a source of tension between the German Empire and other European powers, especially Great Britain and France, even though Germany did not have the head start or the military resources to seriously compete along those lines. Nonetheless, these colonies provided the venue for one of the first examples of genocide in the 20th century, in what is now Namibia. Between 1904-05, the German army killed tens of thousands of rebelling Herero and Namaqua, primarily by destroying food and water sources and driving refugees into the Namib Desert. All of Germany's overseas colonies were dismantled following the end of WWI and the Versailles Treaty.


UPDATE 8TH OCT - DODGE CITY PT 2
UPDATE 30TH SEPT - DODGE CITY - GALLERY

For over 20 years after the Civil War, cowboys coaxed herds of cattle along arduous trails from the Texas grasslands north to the railheads in Kansas. At the end of the trail lay the infamous cow towns, the "Sodoms of the plains", places such as Abilene, Hays City, Wichita, Ellsworth and Dodge City. After following a slow moving herd of cattle along a dusty trail for as many as three months, these towns offered the cowboy a place to take a bath, gamble, find a woman, eat some good food and let off some steam. The towns accommodated their visitors with a liberal attitude towards their boisterous behavior. There were limits, however, and the towns hired enforcers to maintain a semblance of law and order. Law officers such as Wyatt Earp, Wild Bill Hickok, Luke Short and Bat Masterson became legends.

The prosperity of these towns continued only as long as the railroad provided a railhead. As the railroad moved farther west the towns fizzled while another took its place. Some, like Newton, Kansas, lasted only one season. Dodge City lasted much longer, but when the railroads pushed their tracks into Texas and closer to the grazing land, Dodge's days as a cattle town ended.


UPDATE 16TH SEPT - TROUBLE ON THE RIVER LIU 1900 PT 2 - GALLERY

UPDATE 09TH SEPTEMBER - TROUBLE ON THE RIVER LIU 1900 - GALLERY


Boxer Rebellion, officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China. “Boxers” was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”). The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable. It was thought to be an offshoot of the Eight Trigrams Society (Baguajiao), which had fomented rebellions against the Qing dynasty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Their original aim was the destruction of the dynasty and also of the Westerners who had a privileged position in China.



An international force of some 19,000 troops was assembled, most of the soldiers coming from Japan and Russia but many also from Britain, the United States, France, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. On August 14, 1900, that force finally captured Beijing, relieving the foreigners and Christians besieged there since June 20. While foreign troops looted the capital, the empress dowager and her court fled westward to Xi’an in Shaanxi province, leaving behind a few imperial princes to conduct the negotiations. After extensive discussions, a protocol was finally signed in September 1901, ending the hostilities and providing for reparations to be made to the foreign powers.



UPDATE 2ND SEPTEMBER - LATE ROMAN V BARBARIANS PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 25TH AUGUST - LATE ROMANS V BARBARIANS - GALLERY
UPDATE 12TH AUGUST - SASSANID ARMY - WORKBENCH
UPDATE 10TH AUGUST - MASAI TRIBE - WORKBENCH
UPDATE 5TH AUGUST - SCHLESWIG HOLSTEIN WAR PT 2 - GALLERY

The First Schleswig War (German: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War (Danish: Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The war, which lasted from 1848 to 1851, also involved troops from Prussia and Sweden. Ultimately, the war resulted in a Danish victory. A second conflict, the Second Schleswig War, erupted in 1864.

1848

Wishing to defeat Denmark before Prussian, Austrian, and German troops arrived to support them, 7,000 Schleswig-Holsteinish soldiers under General Krohn occupied Flensborg on March 31. Over 7,000 Danish soldiers landed east of the city, and Krohn, fearing he would be surrounded, ordered his forces to withdraw. The Danes were able to reach the Schleswig-Holsteiners before they were able to retreat, and the subsequent Battle of Bov on April 9 was a Danish victory. At the battle, the Prince of Noer, senior commander of the Schleswig-Holsteinish forces, did not arrive until two hours after fighting had started, and the Schleswig-Holsteiners were more prepared for the withdrawal they had intended to make before they were attacked than for an engagement.

Although the tabletop game was not Bov we decided to game the 1848 period and see how would the Holstein army supported by Prussians would stand agaist the Danish army.

Plenty of figures on the table as always and rules were Victorian Steel with minor adjustments.



UPDATE 30th JULY AFRICAN SCENARIOS 1838-1884 VOL ONE  - PDF DOWNLOADS


All play tested at the Victorian Outpost Grimsby.
Victorian Steel are pleased to make available a free PDF featuring three scenarios for the African wars 1838-1884, complete with maps, army lists and some great colour photos of the battles taken at the Victorian Outpost Grimsby


UPDATE 29th JULY - INDIAN MUTINY WARGAME SCENARIOS VOL ONE - PDF DOWNLOADS

All play tested at the Victorian Outpost Grimsby.
Victorian Steel are pleased to make available a free PDF featuring three scenarios for the Indian Mutiny, complete with maps, army lists and some great colour photos of the battles taken at the Victorian Outpost Grimsby.



UPDATE 27TH JULY - WEB STORE - BOSHIN FLAG SHEETS

CONVERSIONS - WORKBENCH
UPDATE 26TH JULY - WEB STORE - 28MM AUSTRIAN FLAGS
UPDATE 20TH JULY - GALLERY SCHLESWIG HOLSTEIN WAR 1848
The First Schleswig War (German: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War (Danish: Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The war, which lasted from 1848 to 1851, also involved troops from Prussia and Sweden. Ultimately, the war resulted in a Danish victory. A second conflict, the Second Schleswig War, erupted in 1864.

1848

Wishing to defeat Denmark before Prussian, Austrian, and German troops arrived to support them, 7,000 Schleswig-Holsteinish soldiers under General Krohn occupied Flensborg on March 31. Over 7,000 Danish soldiers landed east of the city, and Krohn, fearing he would be surrounded, ordered his forces to withdraw. The Danes were able to reach the Schleswig-Holsteiners before they were able to retreat, and the subsequent Battle of Bov on April 9 was a Danish victory. At the battle, the Prince of Noer, senior commander of the Schleswig-Holsteinish forces, did not arrive until two hours after fighting had started, and the Schleswig-Holsteiners were more prepared for the withdrawal they had intended to make before they were attacked than for an engagement.

Although the tabletop game was not Bov we decided to game the 1848 period and see how would the Holstein army supported by Prussians would stand agaist the Danish army.

Plenty of figures on the table as always and rules were Victorian Steel with minor adjustments.

UPDATE 6TH JULY - WORKBENCH

New Government building 28mm in size available from http://adrianswalls.co.uk/ have put a number of pictures of this beautiful building in the workbench, it truly is a work of art and would fit in a number of historical periods around the globe

UPDATE 29TH JUNE JAPANESE BUILDINGS - WORKBENCH
28mm Japanese buildings created

Been very busy painting up the Crusades over the last few weeks, sometimes things get abit boring, so last week as i was painting up miniatures i thought i was in need of Japanese buildings for my Boshin war of 1868, very quickly put together i created four buildings and still manage to paint up around 70 Crusades.

All not perfect and as always a number of small mistakes but on a tabletop 28mm game it represents what i want it to be and adds to the period.

I have also began on my Boshin war battalions and i got my soldering iron kit to create the crossbar on the flag bearer, i have also been busy creating alot of those Boshin period flags, which will soon be available on the website.

UPDATE 27TH JUNE - ISLAMIC SARACENS PAINTED - WORKBENCH
More 28mm miniatures of the Crusade period are put into the collection, alot of the miniatures are from Black Tree Design, which i think are probably the best place to get bargains and great discounts.
UPDATE 22ND JUNE - CRUSADES PAINTED - WORKBENCH.

Been pretty busy creating and painting over the last couple of weeks, here is another batch of Crusades completed, which can be viewed in the "Workbench" tag.

Have yet to put up more photos of the Saracens, Boshin war of 1868 and more of the WOR,
plus a number of  Japanese buildings i have created
UPDATE 15TH JUNE - RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR PT 2 - GALLERY
UPDATE 6TH JUNE - RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR - GALLERY

The Russian Civil War of 1918–20

The civil war between the Bolsheviks (Reds) and the anti-Bolsheviks (Whites) ravaged Russia until 1920. The Whites represented all shades of anti-Communist groups, including members of the constituent assembly. Several of their leaders favored setting up a military dictatorship, but few were outspoken czarists.

Armed opposition to the Soviet regime centered at first in the south, where the volunteers under Kornilov (succeeded by Denikin) joined forces with the Don Cossacks. The Ukraine was the scene of fighting after the Germans evacuated it following the general armistice of Nov. 11, 1918; it was seized by the Bolsheviks (early 1919), by Denikin's forces (Aug.–Dec., 1919), again by the Bolsheviks (Dec., 1919), and finally by the Poles (May, 1920), with whom war had broken out over the Russo-Polish frontier question. Denikin in the meantime had turned over his command to General P. N. Wrangel, who after the conclusion of the Russo-Polish armistice was driven by the Bolsheviks into the Crimea and was obliged to evacuate his forces to Constantinople (Nov., 1920).

The civil war in the east was equally fatal to the Whites. A government was organized at Samara by a group of Socialist Revolutionaries who had been members of the constituent assembly. It received the support of the Czech Legion, which controlled the Trans-Siberian RR, but it merged (Sept., 1918) with a more conservative government set up at Omsk, in Siberia, and a few weeks later fell under the dictatorship of Admiral Kolchak. Although at first successful, Kolchak's forces were eventually driven to the Russian Far East; by Jan., 1920, all Siberia except Vladivostok and some other Far Eastern territory was in Bolshevik hands.

The civil war was complicated by Allied intervention. In N Russia, British, French, and American forces occupied (Mar., 1918) Murmansk and later Arkhangelsk with the stated purpose of protecting Allied stores against possible seizure by the Germans; they were evacuated only in Nov., 1919. In the Russian Far East the Allies occupied Vladivostok, which the Japanese held until 1922.

The Bolshevik military victory was due partly to the lack of cooperation among the various White commanders and partly to the remarkable reorganization of the Red forces after Trotsky became commissar for war. It was won, however, only at the price of immense sacrifice; Russia by 1920 was ruined and devastated. Atrocities were committed throughout the civil war by both sides.

Victorian Steel rules came about as a result of us not being able to find a set of rules that captured the spirit of Victorian Colonial Warfare. The aspects we wanted to capture included the European ability to deliver a volley and follow it up with cold steel whilst  also giving the natives a chance to use their natural advantages of climate and familiarity with the terrain often accompanied by rapid movement which the European forces could rarely match.
We both wargame at Grimsby Wargames Society where large battles are the norm, but these rules give a perfectly good game with only an eight stand European force taking on three to four times its number of native opponents ,so for the cost of a few boxes of Perry Ansar ,Warlord games Zulus or Wargames Factory British and Zulus the Colonial World will come alive! For those of you with a bigger budget there are some superb figures out there in metal and troops of all types will be shown in the rules and the soon to be released Scenario books.
We wanted to add to the value of both the rule set and the scenario books so along with the rules we will include a full colour flag sheet for the rule set covering the British and for the scenario books covering the flags of all the protagonists (assuming they had some!)
We both have years of experience in the hobby starting in my case back in 1969 when I started senior school and we prefer uncomplicated rules with whole figure casualties, no record keeping and easy to remember mechanisms which do not rely on you having to rebase your figures. We also wanted a clear result in a few hours as most games take place in an evening with definite time constraints.In this game the Europeans are always under pressure to complete the task before running low on ammunition or becoming exhausted both of which effects are dealt with simply in the rules.
We have tested the rules using troops from the Indian Mutiny, The Sudan, The Boer War, French Foreign Legion in North Africa, The Boxer Rebellion and Both Russo Japanese  and Sino Japanese forces not to mention Zulus. They seem to work for all of them and the troop classification system allows you to reflect the difference between a Zulu Impi  and a Sudanese Arab Rub as well as the vastly different qualities of Tommy Atkins and an Egyptian soldier impressed in the ill-fated force led by Hicks Pasha.
There is no reason why they cannot be used for the Crimean War and that will be the subject of a future scenario book ( Once we have painted the figures required!)
We are very happy with our first venture into commercial rule writing and we hope you are too!

Dave Tuck and Malc Johnston